Re-engineered BCG overexpressing cyclic di-AMP augments trained immunity and exhibits improved efficacy against bladder cancer.
Singh AK, Praharaj M, Lombardo KA, Yoshida T, Matoso A, Baras AS, Zhao L, Srikrishna G, Huang J, Prasad P, Powell JD, Kates M, McConkey D, Pardoll DM, Bishai WR, Bivalacqua TJ. Nat Commun. 2022 Feb 15;13(1):878. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-28509-z. PMID: 35169141 .

Augmentation of the Riboflavin-Biosynthetic Pathway Enhances Mucosa-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) Cell Activation and Diminishes Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence.
Dey RJ, Dey B, Harriff M, Canfield ET, Lewinsohn DM, Bishai WR. mBio. 2022 Feb 15;13(1):e0386521. doi: 10.1128/mbio.03865-21. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35164552

BCG invokes superior STING-mediated innate immune response over radiotherapy in a carcinogen murine model of urothelial cancer.
Lombardo KA, Obradovic A, Singh AK, Liu JL, Joice G, Kates M, Bishai W, McConkey D, Chaux A, Eich ML, Rezaei MK, Netto GJ, Drake CG, Tran P, Matoso A, Bivalacqua TJ. J Pathol. 2022 Feb;256(2):223-234. doi: 10.1002/path.5830. Epub 2021 Dec 10. PMID: 34731491 .

124I-Iodo-DPA-713 Positron Emission Tomography in a Hamster Model of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
Ruiz-Bedoya CA, Mota F, Ordonez AA, Foss CA, Singh AK, Praharaj M, Mahmud FJ, Ghayoor A, Flavahan K, De Jesus P, Bahr M, Dhakal S, Zhou R, Solis CV, Mulka KR, Bishai WR, Pekosz A, Mankowski JL, Villano J, Klein SL, Jain SK. Mol Imaging Biol. 2022 Feb;24(1):135-143. doi: 10.1007/s11307-021-01638-5. Epub 2021 Aug 23. PMID: 34424479 .

Recombinant BCGs for tuberculosis and bladder cancer.
Singh AK, Srikrishna G, Bivalacqua TJ, Bishai WR. Vaccine. 2021 Dec 8;39(50):7321-7331. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.09.040. Epub 2021 Sep 27. PMID: 34593271 .

Effective Host-Directed Therapy for Tuberculosis by Depletion of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Related Cells Using a Diphtheria Toxin Fusion Protein.
Parveen S, Lun S, Urbanowski ME, Cardin M, Shen J, Murphy JR, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 2021 Dec 1;224(11):1962-1972. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab235. PMID: 33955457 .

Host-Directed Therapies: Modulating Inflammation to Treat Tuberculosis.
Krug S, Parveen S, Bishai WR. Front Immunol. 2021 Apr 19;12:660916. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.660916. PMID: 33953722 .

The integrated stress response mediates necrosis in murine Mycobacterium tuberculosis granulomas.
Bhattacharya B, Xiao S, Chatterjee S, Urbanowski M, Ordonez A, Ihms EA, Agrahari G, Lun S, Berland R, Pichugin A, Gao Y, Connor J, Ivanov AR, Yan BS, Kobzik L, Koo BB, Jain S, Bishai W, Kramnik I. J Clin Invest. 2021 Feb 1;131(3):e130319. doi: 10.1172/JCI130319. PMID: 33301427 .

BCG turns 100: its nontraditional uses against viruses, cancer, and immunologic diseases.
Singh AK, Netea MG, Bishai WR. J Clin Invest. 2021 Jun 1;131(11):e148291. doi: 10.1172/JCI148291. PMID: 34060492 .

Therapeutic targeting with DABIL-4 depletes myeloid suppressor cells in 4T1 triple-negative breast cancer model.
Parveen S, Siddharth S, Cheung LS, Kumar A, Shen J, Murphy JR, Sharma D, Bishai WR. Mol Oncol. 2021 Mar 7. doi: 10.1002/1878-0261.12938. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33682324 .

Facile synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ciprofloxacin derivatives.
Alsayed SSR, Lun S, Payne A, Bishai WR, Gunosewoyo H. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2021 Feb 26. doi: 10.1111/cbdd.13836. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33638304.

Immunologic goalposts for TB vaccine development.
Um PK, Bishai WR. Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Feb 10;29(2):158-159. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.01.011. PMID:33558290.

Therapeutic potential of coumestan Pks13 inhibitors for tuberculosis.
Lun S, Xiao S, Zhang W, Wang S, Gunosewoyo H, Yu LF, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Feb 8:AAC.02190-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02190-20. Online ahead of print. PMID:33558290.

Design and synthesis of mycobacterial pks13 inhibitors: Conformationally rigid tetracyclic molecules.
Zhang W, Liu LL, Lun S, Wang SS, Xiao S, Gunosewoyo H, Yang F, Tang J, Bishai WR, Yu LF. Eur J Med Chem. 2021 Mar 5;213:113202. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113202. Epub 2021 Jan 21. PMID:33516983.

Design, synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of novel adamantane and adamantanol analogues effective against drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Alsayed SSR, Lun S, Payne A, Bishai WR, Gunosewoyo H. Bioorg Chem. 2021 Jan;106:104486. doi: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104486. Epub 2020 Nov 19. PMID:33276981.

Post translational modifications in tuberculosis: ubiquitination paradox.
Shariq M, Quadir N, Sheikh JA, Singh AK, Bishai WR, Ehtesham NZ, Hasnain SE. Autophagy. 2021 Mar;17(3):814-817. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1850009. Epub 2020 Nov 24. PMID:33190592.

Short Communication: Genetic Variation in Human IL10 Proximal Promoter and Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection in Mali, West Africa.
Dabitao D, Dembele M, Urbanowski M, Kone B, Wague M, Coulibaly N, Sarro YDS, Baya B, Goita D, Dao S, Belson M, Klein SL, Achenbach C, Holl JL, Diakite M, Doumbia S, Bream JH, Bishai WR, Diallo S, Murphy RL. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2021 Jan;37(1):57-61. doi: 10.1089/AID.2020.0140. Epub 2020 Nov 23. PMID:33045845.

Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel arylcarboxamide derivatives as anti-tubercular agents.
Alsayed SSR, Lun S, Luna G, Beh CC, Payne AD, Foster N, Bishai WR, Gunosewoyo H. RSC Adv. 2020 Feb 23;10(13):7523-7540. doi: 10.1039/c9ra10663d. Epub 2020 Feb 19. PMID:33014349.

Getting to the point in point-of-care diagnostics for tuberculosis.
Ignatius EH, Cohen KA, Bishai WR. J Clin Invest. 2020 Nov 2;130(11):5671-5673. doi: 10.1172/JCI142497. PMID:32986020.

Infectability of human BrainSphere neurons suggests neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2.
Bullen CK, Hogberg HT, Bahadirli-Talbott A, Bishai WR, Hartung T, Keuthan C, Looney MM, Pekosz A, Romero JC, Sillé FCM, Um P, Smirnova L. ALTEX. 2020;37(4):665-671. doi: 10.14573/altex.2006111. Epub 2020 Jun 26. PMID:.

Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridinecarboxamides as potent anti-tuberculosis agents.
Onajole OK, Lun S, Yun YJ, Langue DY, Jaskula-Dybka M, Flores A, Frazier E, Scurry AC, Zavala A, Arreola KR, Pierzchalski B, Ayitou AJ, Bishai WR. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2020 Dec;96(6):1362-1371. doi: 10.1111/cbdd.13739. Epub 2020 Jul 9. PMID:.

Cavitary tuberculosis: the gateway of disease transmission.
Urbanowski ME, Ordonez AA, Ruiz-Bedoya CA, Jain SK, Bishai WR. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jun;20(6):e117-e128. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30148-1. Epub 2020 May 5. PMID: 32482293.

Relative and Quantitative Phosphoproteome Analysis of Macrophages in Response to Infection by Virulent and Avirulent Mycobacteria Reveals a Distinct Role of the Cytosolic RNA Sensor RIG-I in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis.
Choudhary E, Bullen CK, Goel R, Singh AK, Praharaj M, Thakur P, Dhiman R, Bishai WR, Agarwal N. J Proteome Res. 2020 Jun 5;19(6):2316-2336. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.9b00895. Epub 2020 May 14. PMID:32407090.

Acyldepsipeptide Antibiotics and a Bioactive Fragment Thereof Differentially Perturb Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpXP1P2 Activity in vitro.
Schmitz KR, Handy EL, Compton CL, Gupta S, Bishai WR, Sauer RT, Sello JK. ACS Chem Biol. 2020 Feb 21:10.1021/acschembio.9b00454. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.9b00454. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32083462 .

Revisiting the β-Lactams for Tuberculosis Therapy with a Compound-Compound Synthetic Lethality Approach.
Xiao S, Guo H, Weiner WS, Maddox C, Mao C, Gunosewoyo H, Pelly S, White EL, Rasmussen L, Schoenen FJ, Aubé J, Bishai WR, Lun S. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Oct 22;63(11):e01319-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01319-19. Print 2019 Nov. PMID:31427291 .

Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Diphtheria Toxin, the tox Operon, and Its Regulation by Fe2+ Activation of apo-DtxR.
Parveen S, Bishai WR, Murphy JR. Microbiol Spectr. 2019 Jul;7(4). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0063-2019. PMID: 31267892.

TRAV1-2+ CD8+ T-cells including oligoconal expansions of MAIT cells are enriched in the airways in human tuberculosis.
Wong EB, Gold MC, Meermeier EW, Xulu BZ, Khuzwayo S, Sullivan ZA, Mahyari E, Rogers Z, Kløverpris H, Sharma PK, Worley AH, Lalloo U, Baijnath P, Ambaram A, Naidoo L, Suleman M, Madansein R, McLaren JE, Ladell K, Miners KL, Price DA, Behar SM, Nielsen M, Kasprowicz VO, Leslie A, Bishai WR, Ndung’u T, Lewinsohn DM. Commun Biol. 2019 Jun 5;2:203. doi: 10.1038/s42003-019-0442-2. eCollection 2019. PMID:31231693.

Potential for breath test diagnosis of urease positive pathogens in lung infections.
Bishai WR, Timmins GS. J Breath Res. 2019 Jun 4;13(3):032002. doi: 10.1088/1752-7163/ab2225. PMID: 31096193 .

Advancing the Therapeutic Potential of Indoleamides for Tuberculosis.
Lun S, Tasneen R, Chaira T, Stec J, Onajole OK, Yang TJ, Cooper CB, Mdluli K, Converse PJ, Nuermberger EL, Raj VS, Kozikowski A, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Jun 24;63(7):e00343-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00343-19. Print 2019 Jul. PMID: 31010860 .

Identification of Novel Coumestan Derivatives as Polyketide Synthase 13 Inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Part II.
Zhang W, Lun S, Liu LL, Xiao S, Duan G, Gunosewoyo H, Yang F, Tang J, Bishai WR, Yu LF. J Med Chem. 2019 Apr 11;62(7):3575-3589. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00010. Epub 2019 Mar 27. PMID:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30875203″>30875203 .

Second-generation IL-2 receptor-targeted diphtheria fusion toxin exhibits antitumor activity and synergy with anti-PD-1 in melanoma.
Cheung LS, Fu J, Kumar P, Kumar A, Urbanowski ME, Ihms EA, Parveen S, Bullen CK, Patrick GJ, Harrison R, Murphy JR, Pardoll DM, Bishai WR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Feb 19;116(8):3100-3105. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1815087116. Epub 2019 Feb 4. PMID: 30718426.

Differential HLA allele frequency in Mycobacterium africanum vs Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mali.
Kone A, Diarra B, Cohen K, Diabate S, Kone B, Diakite MT, Diarra H, Sanogo M, Togo ACG, Sarro YDS, Baya B, Coulibaly N, Kodio O, Achenbach CJ, Murphy RL, Holl JL, Siddiqui S, Doumbia S, Bishai WR, Diallo S, Maiga M. HLA. 2019 Jan;93(1):24-31. doi: 10.1111/tan.13448. Epub 2019 Jan 2. PMID:30516034 .

Pharmacologic Exhaustion of Suppressor Cells with Tasquinimod Enhances Bacterial Clearance during Tuberculosis.
Gupta S, Krug S, Pokkali S, Leanderson T, Isaacs JT, Srikrishna G, Bishai WR. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Feb 1;199(3):386-389. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201805-0820LE. PMID: 30395729 .

Lysosomal Cathepsin Release Is Required for NLRP3-Inflammasome Activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Infected Macrophages.
Amaral EP, Riteau N, Moayeri M, Maier N, Mayer-Barber KD, Pereira RM, Lage SL, Kubler A, Bishai WR, D’Império-Lima MR, Sher A, Andrade BB. Front Immunol. 2018 Jun 21;9:1427. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01427. eCollection 2018. PMID: 29977244.

Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibition in a Murine Model of Cavitary Tuberculosis Paradoxically Worsens Pathology.
Ordonez AA, Pokkali S, Sanchez-Bautista J, Klunk MH, Urbanowski ME, Kübler A, Bishai WR, Elkington PT, Jain SK. J Infect Dis. 2019 Jan 29;219(4):633-636. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy373. PMID:29920600.

Diverse Cavity Types and Evidence that Mechanical Action on the Necrotic Granuloma Drives Tuberculous Cavitation.
Ihms EA, Urbanowski ME, Bishai WR. Am J Pathol. 2018 Jul;188(7):1666-1675. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.04.006. Epub 2018 May 23. PMID:29753789

Organoid culture of bladder cancer cells.
Yoshida T, Singh AK, Bishai WR, McConkey DJ, Bivalacqua TJ. Investig Clin Urol. 2018 May;59(3):149-151. doi: 10.4111/icu.2018.59.3.149. Epub 2018 Apr 30. PMID: 29744470.

Pharmacokinetics of rifapentine and rifampin in a rabbit model of tuberculosis and correlation with clinical trial data.
Rifat D, Prideaux B, Savic RM, Urbanowski ME, Parsons TL, Luna B, Marzinke MA, Ordonez AA, DeMarco VP, Jain SK, Dartois V, Bishai WR, Dooley KE. Sci Transl Med. 2018 Apr 4;10(435):eaai7786. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aai7786. PMID: 29618565.

Repetitive Aerosol Exposure Promotes Cavitary Tuberculosis and Enables Screening for Targeted Inhibitors of Extensive Lung Destruction.
Urbanowski ME, Ihms EA, Bigelow K, Kübler A, Elkington PT, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 5;218(1):53-63. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy127. PMID: 29554286.

Identification of Novel Coumestan Derivatives as Polyketide Synthase 13 Inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Zhang W, Lun S, Wang SH, Jiang XW, Yang F, Tang J, Manson AL, Earl AM, Gunosewoyo H, Bishai WR, Yu LF. J Med Chem. 2018 Feb 8;61(3):791-803. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01319. Epub 2018 Jan 29. PMID:29328655.

Ex vivo culture of tumor cells from N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced bladder cancer in rats: Development of organoids and an immortalized cell line.
Yoshida T, Kates M, Sopko NA, Liu X, Singh AK, Bishai WR, Joice G, McConkey DJ, Bivalacqua TJ. Urol Oncol. 2018 Apr;36(4):160.e23-160.e32. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2017.11.024. Epub 2017 Dec 26. PMID:29288005.

Genetics of human susceptibility to active and latent tuberculosis: present knowledge and future perspectives.
Abel L, Fellay J, Haas DW, Schurr E, Srikrishna G, Urbanowski M, Chaturvedi N, Srinivasan S, Johnson DH, Bishai WR. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Mar;18(3):e64-e75. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30623-0. Epub 2017 Oct 27. PMID:29111156 .

Partners in Crime: Phenolic Glycolipids and Macrophages.
Singh AK, Bishai WR. Trends Mol Med. 2017 Nov;23(11):981-983. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix208. PMID: 28863467.

Drug development: Locking down metabolism.
Bishai WR. Nat Chem Biol. 2017 Aug 18;13(9):925-926. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2452. PMID: 28820877.

Inhibition of innate immune cytosolic surveillance by an M. tuberculosis phosphodiesterase.
Dey RJ, Dey B, Zheng Y, Cheung LS, Shou J, Sayre D, Kumar P, Guo H, Lamichhane G, Sintim HO, Bishai WR. Nat Chem Biol. 2017 Feb;13(2):210-217. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2254. PMID: 28106876.

Bacterial subversion of cAMP signalling inhibits cathelicidin expression, which is required for innate resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Gupta S, Winglee K, Gallo R, Bishai WR. J Pathol. 2017 May;242(1):52-61. doi: 10.1002/path.4878. PMID: 28097645.

The antifibrotic drug prifenidone promotes pulmonary cavitation and drug resistance in a mouse model of chronic tuberculosis.
Ahidjo BA, Maiga MC, Ihms EA, Maiga M, Ordonez AA, Cheung LS, Beck S, Andrade BB, Jain S, Bishai WR. JCI Insight. 2016 Sep 8;1(14)e86017. PMID: 27699232.

Stool microbiome reveals diverse bacterial ureases as confounders of oral urea breath testing for Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bamako, Mali.
Maiga M, Cohen K, Baya B, Srikrishna G, Siddiqui S, Sanogo M, Somboro AM, Diarra B, Diallo MH, Mazumdar V, Yoder C, Orsega S, Belson M, Kassambara H, Goita D, Murphy RL, Dao S, Polis M, Diallo S, Timmins GS, DoddL, Earl AM, Bishai WR. J Breath Res. 2016 Aug 17;10(3):036012. doi: 10.1088/1752-7155/10/3/036012. PMID: 27532494.

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors as adjunctive therapies for tuberculosis.
Ahidjo BA, Bishai WR. EBioMedicine. 2016 Feb 9;4:7-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.02.016. PMID: 26981560.

Whole Genome Sequencing of Mycobacterium africanum Strains from Mali Provides Insights into the Mechanisms of Geographic Restriction.
Winglee K, Manson McGuire A, Maiga M, Abeel T, Shea T, Desjardins CA, Diarra B, Baya B, Sanogo M, Diallo S, Earl AM, Bishai WR. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Jan 11;10(1):e0004332. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004332. PMID: 26751217.

Roflumilast, a Type 4 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, Shows Promising Adjunctive, Host-Directed Therapeutic Activity in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis.
Maiga MC, Ahidjo BA, Maiga M, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Dec;59(12):7888-90. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02145-15. PMID: 26438491.

Efficacy of Adjunctive Tofacitinib Therapy in Mouse Models of Tuberculosis.
Maiga M, Ahidjo BA, Maiga MC, Cheung L, Pelly S, Lung S, Bougoudogo F, Bishai WR. EbioMedicine. 2015 Jul 14:2(8):868-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.07.014. eCollection 2015 Aug. PMID: 26425693.

Cathepsin K Contributes to Cavitation and Collagen Turnover in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
Kubler A, Larsson C, Luna B, Andrade BB, Amaral EP, Urbanowski M, Orandle M, Bock K, Ammerman NC, Cheung LS, Winglee K, Halushka M, Park JK, Sher A, Friedland JS, Elkington PT, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;213(4):618-27. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv458. PMID: 26416658.

Mutation of Rv2887, a marR-like gene, confers Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to an imidazopyridine-based agent.
Winglee K, Lun S, Pieroni M, Kozikowski A, Bishai W. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Nov;59(11):6873-81. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01341-15. PMID: 26303802.

Can the addition of verapamil to bedaquiline-containing regimens improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes? A novel approach to optimizing TB treatment.
Srikrishna G, Gupta S, Dooley KE, Bishai WR. Future Microbiol. 2015;10(8):1257-60. doi: 10.2217/FMB.15.56. PMID: 26226503.

Latent and Active Tuberculosis Infection Increase Immune Activation in Individuals Co-Infected with HIV.
Sullivan ZA, Wong EB, Ndung’u T, Kasprowicz VO, Bishai WR. EBioMedicine. 2015 Apr 1;2(4):334-340. PMID: 26114158.

Molecular Basis of Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Cohen KA, Bishai WR, Pym AS. Microbiol Spectr. 2014 Jun;2(3). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0036-2013. Review. PMID: 26103975.

Biomarkers for Tuberculosis Based on Secreted, Species-Specific, Bacterial Small Molecules.
Pan SJ, Tapley A, Adamson J, Little T, Urbanowski M, Cohen K, Pym A, Almeida D, Dorasamy A, Layre E, Young DC, Singh R, Patel VB, Wallengren K, Ndung’u T, Wilson D, Moody DB, Bishai W. J Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 1;212(11):1827-34. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv312. PMID: 26014799.

A bacterial cyclic dinucleotide activates the cytosolic surveillance pathway and mediates innate resistance to tuberculosis.
Dey B, Dey RJ, Cheung LS, Pokkali S, Guo H, Lee JH, Bishai WR. Nat Med.
2015 Apr;21(4):401-6. doi: 10.1038/nm.3813. PMID: 25730264.

Verapamil increases the bactericidal activity of bedaquiline against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a mouse model.
Gupta S, Tyagi S, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Jan;59(1):673-6. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04019-14. PMID: 25331694.

Crosstalk between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the host cell.
Dey B, Bishai WR. Semin Immunol. 2014 Dec;26(6):486-96. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2014.09.002. PMID: 25303934.

Synthetic lethality reveals mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to β-lactams.
Lun S, Miranda D, Kubler A, Guo H, Maiga MC, Winglee K, Pelly S, Bishai WR. MBio. 2014 Sep 16;5(5):e01767-14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01767-14. PMID: 25227469.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis dysregulates MMP/TIMP balance to drive rapid cavitation and unrestrained bacterial proliferation.
Kübler A, Luna B, Larsson C, Ammerman NC, Andrade BB, Orandle M, Bock KW, Xu Z, Bagci U, Mollura DJ, Marshall J, Burns J, Winglee K, Ahidjo BA, Cheung LS, Klunk M, Jain SK, Kumar NP, Babu S, Sher A, Friedland JS, Elkington PT, Bishai WR. J Pathol. 2015 Feb;235(3):431-44. doi: 10.1002/path.4432. PMID: 25186281.

In vivo prediction of tuberculosis-associated cavity formation in rabbits.
Luna B, Kubler A, Larsson C, Foster B, Bagci U, Mollura DJ, Jain SK, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 1;211(3):481-5. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu449. PMID: 25117755.

Aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causes rapid loss of diversity in gut microbiota.
Winglee K, Eloe-Fadrosh E, Gupta S, Guo H, Fraser C, Bishai W. PLoS One. 2014 May 12;9(5):e97048. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097048. PMID: 24819223.

In vitro and in vivo studies of a rapid and selective breath test for tuberculosis based upon mycobacterial CO dehydrogenase.
Maiga M, Choi SW, Atudorei V, Maiga MC, Sharp ZD, Bishai WR, Timmins GS. MBio. 2014 Apr 15;5(2):e00990. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00990-14. PMID: 24736224.

Indoleamides are active against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Lun S, Guo H, Onajole OK, Pieroni M, Gunosewoyo H, Chen G, Tipparaju SK, Ammerman NC, Kozikowski AP, Bishai WR. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2907. doi: 10.1038/ncomms3907.

Efflux inhibition with verapamil potentiates bedaquiline in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Gupta S, Cohen KA, Winglee K, Maiga M, Diarra B, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(1):574-6. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01462-13. PMID: 24126586.

Pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy studies of the mycobactin biosynthesis inhibitor salicyl-AMS in mice.
Lun S, Guo H, Adamson J, Cisar JS, Davis TD, Chavadi SS, Warren JD, Quadri LE, Tan DS, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Oct;57(10):5138-40. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00918-13. PMID: 23856770.

Acceleration of tuberculosis treatment by adjunctive therapy with verapamil as an efflux inhibitor.
Gupta S, Tyagi S, Almeida DV, Maiga MC, Ammerman NC, Bishai WR. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep 1;188(5):600-7. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201304-0650OC. PMID: 23805786.

Rising to the challenge: new therapies for tuberculosis.
Wong EB, Cohen KA, Bishai WR. Trends Microbiol. 2013 Sep;21(9):493-501. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2013.05.002. Review. PMID: 23764389.

Adjuvant host-directed therapy with types 3 and 5 but not type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitors shortens the duration of tuberculosis treatment.
Maiga M, Ammerman NC, Maiga MC, Tounkara A, Siddiqui S, Polis M, Murphy R, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 2013 Aug 1;208(3):512-9. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit187. Erratum in: J Infect Dis. 2015 Jan 15;211(2):333. PMID: 23641020.

Basic research at the epicenter of an epidemic.
Bishai WR. Elife. 2013 Apr 2;2:e00639. doi: 10.7554/eLife.00639. PMID: 23577235.

Bettering BCG: a tough task for a TB vaccine?
Bishai W, Sullivan Z, Bloom BR, Andersen P. Nat Med.
2013 Apr;19(4):410-1. doi: 10.1038/nm.3153. PMID: 23558628.

Rv2190c, an NlpC/P60 family protein, is required for full virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Parthasarathy G, Lun S, Guo H, Ammerman NC, Geiman DE, Bishai WR. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43429. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043429. PMID: 22952680.

Modeling early bactericidal activity in murine tuberculosis provides insights into the activity of isoniazid and pyrazinamide.
Grosset J, Almeida D, Converse PJ, Tyagi S, Li SY, Ammerman NC, Pym AS, Wallengren K, Hafner R, Lalloo U, Swindells S, Bishai WR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Sep 11;109(37):15001-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1203636109. PMID: 22927424.

Gene expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis putative transcription factors whiB1-7 in redox environments.
Larsson C, Luna B, Ammerman NC, Maiga M, Agarwal N, Bishai WR. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e37516. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037516. PMID: 22829866.

Current tuberculosis diagnostic tools & role of urease breath test.
Maiga M, Abaza A, Bishai WR. Indian J Med Res. 2012 May;135(5):731-6. Review. PMID: 22771606.

New drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis: hope and reality.
Grosset JH, Singer TG, Bishai WR. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012 Aug;16(8):1005-14. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.12.0277. Review. PMID: 22762423.

Risk of tuberculosis reactivation with tofacitinib (CP-690550).
Maiga M, Lun S, Guo H, Winglee K, Ammerman NC, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;205(11):1705-8. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis269. Epub 2012 Apr 3. Erratum in: J Infect Dis. 2015 Jul 15;212(2):338. PMID: 22474037.

Isoniazid resistance without a loss of fitness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Lee JH, Ammerman NC, Nolan S, Geiman DE, Lun S, Guo H, Bishai WR. Nat Commun. 2012 Mar 20;3:753. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1724. PMID: 22434196.

Successful shortening of tuberculosis treatment using adjuvant host-directed therapy with FDA-approved phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the mouse model.
Maiga M, Agarwal N, Ammerman NC, Gupta R, Guo H, Maiga MC, Lun S, Bishai WR. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e30749. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030749. PMID: 22319585.

A modified scoring system to describe gross pathology in the rabbit model of tuberculosis.
Jassal MS, Nedeltchev GG, Osborne J, Bishai WR. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Mar 4;11:49. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-49. PMID: 21375756.

Essential metabolites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their mimics.
Lamichhane G, Freundlich JS, Ekins S, Wickramaratne N, Nolan ST, Bishai WR. MBio. 2011 Feb 1;2(1):e00301-10. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00301-10. PMID: 21285434.

Heightened vulnerability to MDR-TB epidemics after controlling drug-susceptible TB.
Bishai JD, Bishai WR, Bishai DM. PLoS One. 2010 Sep 22;5(9):e12843. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012843. PMID: 20877639.

13[C]-urea breath test as a novel point-of-care biomarker for tuberculosis treatment and diagnosis.
Jassal MS, Nedeltchev GG, Lee JH, Choi SW, Atudorei V, Sharp ZD, Deretic V, Timmins GS, Bishai WR. PLoS One. 2010 Aug 27;5(8):e12451. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012451. PMID: 20805989.

The impact of mouse passaging of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains prior to virulence testing in the mouse and guinea pig aerosol models.
Converse PJ, Eisenach KD, Theus SA, Nuermberger EL, Tyagi S, Ly LH, Geiman DE, Guo H, Nolan ST, Akar NC, Klinkenberg LG, Gupta R, Lun S, Karakousis PC, Lamichhane G, McMurray DN, Grosset JH, Bishai WR. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 21;5(4):e10289. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010289. PMID: 20422019.

Epidemiology and challenges to the elimination of global tuberculosis.
Jassal MS, Bishai WR. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 15;50 Suppl 3:S156-64. doi: 10.1086/651486. Review. PMID: 20397943.

Microbiology. Subversion from the sidelines.
Agarwal N, Bishai WR. Science. 2010 Jan 22;327(5964):417-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1185569. PMID: 20093460.

Penitentiary or penthouse condo: the tuberculous granuloma from the microbe’s point of view.
Paige C, Bishai WR. Cell Microbiol. 2010 Mar;12(3):301-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2009.01424.x. Review. PMID: 20039878.

cAMP signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Agarwal N, Bishai WR. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 Jun;47(6):393-400. Review. PMID: 19634702.

Cyclic AMP intoxication of macrophages by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis adenylate cyclase.
Agarwal N, Lamichhane G, Gupta R, Nolan S, Bishai WR. Nature. 2009 Jul 2;460(7251):98-102. doi: 10.1038/nature08123. PMID: 19516256.

Role of the dosR-dosS two-component regulatory system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence in three animal models.
Converse PJ, Karakousis PC, Klinkenberg LG, Kesavan AK, Ly LH, Allen SS, Grosset JH, Jain SK, Lamichhane G, Manabe YC, McMurray DN, Nuermberger EL, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 2009 Mar;77(3):1230-7. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01117-08. PMID: 19103767.

Extrapulmonary dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a bronchoscopic rabbit model of cavitary tuberculosis.
Nedeltchev GG, Raghunand TR, Jassal MS, Lun S, Cheng QJ, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 2009 Feb;77(2):598-603. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01132-08. PMID: 19064634.

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Jassal M, Bishai WR. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009 Jan;9(1):19-30. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(08)70260-3. Review. PMID: 18990610.

Altered cellular infiltration and cytokine levels during early Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigC mutant infection are associated with late-stage disease attenuation and milder immunopathology in mice.
Abdul-Majid KB, Ly LH, Converse PJ, Geiman DE, McMurray DN, Bishai WR. BMC Microbiol. 2008 Sep 17;8:151. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-8-151. PMID: 18798983.

Altered expression of isoniazid-regulated genes in drug-treated dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Karakousis PC, Williams EP, Bishai WR. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Feb;61(2):323-31. PMID: 18156607.

Role of stress response sigma factor SigG in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Lee JH, Geiman DE, Bishai WR. J Bacteriol. 2008 Feb;190(3):1128-33. PMID: 18039768.

Roles of SigB and SigF in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigma factor network.
Lee JH, Karakousis PC, Bishai WR. J Bacteriol. 2008 Jan;190(2):699-707. PMID: 17993538.

Accelerated detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes essential for bacterial survival in guinea pigs, compared with mice.
Jain SK, Hernandez-Abanto SM, Cheng QJ, Singh P, Ly LH, Klinkenberg LG, Morrison NE, Converse PJ, Nuermberger E, Grosset J, McMurray DN, Karakousis PC, Lamichhane G, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 2007 Jun 1;195(11):1634-42. PMID: 17471433.

Characterization of a novel cell wall-anchored protein with carboxylesterase activity required for virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Lun S, Bishai WR. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 22;282(25):18348-56. PMID: 17428787.

Defining the ‘survivasome’ of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Lamichhane G, Bishai W. Nat Med. 2007 Mar;13(3):280-2. No abstract available. PMID: 17342137.

Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigma factor SigM by assessment of virulence and identification of SigM-dependent genes.
Agarwal N, Woolwine SC, Tyagi S, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 2007 Jan;75(1):452-61. PMID: 17088352.

Deletion of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasomal ATPase homologue gene produces a slow-growing strain that persists in host tissues.
Lamichhane G, Raghunand TR, Morrison NE, Woolwine SC, Tyagi S, Kandavelou K, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 2006 Nov 1;194(9):1233-40. PMID: 17041849.

Mapping essential domains of Mycobacterium smegmatis WhmD: insights into WhiB structure and function.
Raghunand TR, Bishai WR. J Bacteriol. 2006 Oct;188(19):6966-76. PMID: 16980499.

Regulation of the expression of whiB1 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: role of cAMP receptor protein.
Agarwal N, Raghunand TR, Bishai WR. Microbiology. 2006 Sep;152(Pt 9):2749-56. PMID: 16946269.

Mycobacterium smegmatis whmD and its homologue Mycobacterium tuberculosis whiB2 are functionally equivalent.
Raghunand TR, Bishai WR. Microbiology. 2006 Sep;152(Pt 9):2735-47. PMID: 16946268.

Tetracycline-inducible gene expression in mycobacteria within an animal host using modified Streptomyces tcp830 regulatory elements.
Hernandez-Abanto SM, Woolwine SC, Jain SK, Bishai WR. Arch Microbiol. 2006 Dec;186(6):459-64. PMID: 16944099.

Differential gene expression in response to exposure to antimycobacterial agents and other stress conditions among seven Mycobacterium tuberculosis whiB-like genes.
Geiman DE, Raghunand TR, Agarwal N, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Aug;50(8):2836-41. PMID: 16870781.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis invasion and traversal across an in vitro human blood-brain barrier as a pathogenic mechanism for central nervous system tuberculosis.
Jain SK, Paul-Satyaseela M, Lamichhane G, Kim KS, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 2006 May 1;193(9):1287-95. PMID: 16586367.

The market for antituberculosis drugs and vaccines: incentives for investment in new products.
Chaudhry RG, Bishai DM. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2005 Dec;5(6):775-81. doi: 10.1586/14737167.5.6.775. PMID: 19807619.

Designer arrays for defined mutant analysis to detect genes essential for survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mouse lungs.
Lamichhane G, Tyagi S, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 2005 Apr;73(4):2533-40. PMID: 15784600.

Modeling in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by using a novel cartridge system.
Ginsburg AS, Lee J, Woolwine SC, Grosset JH, Hamzeh FM, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb;49(2):853-6. PMID: 15673788.

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis SigD sigma factor controls the expression of ribosome-associated gene products in stationary phase and is required for full virulence.
Calamita H, Ko C, Tyagi S, Yoshimatsu T, Morrison NE, Bishai WR. Cell Microbiol. 2005 Feb;7(2):233-44. PMID: 15659067.

Dormancy phenotype displayed by extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis within artificial granulomas in mice.
Karakousis PC, Yoshimatsu T, Lamichhane G, Woolwine SC, Nuermberger EL, Grosset J, Bishai WR. J Exp Med. 2004 Sep 6;200(5):647-57. PMID: 15353557.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis ECF sigma factor sigC is required for lethality in mice and for the conditional expression of a defined gene set.
Sun R, Converse PJ, Ko C, Tyagi S, Morrison NE, Bishai WR. Mol Microbiol. 2004 Apr;52(1):25-38. PMID: 15049808.

Attenuation of late-stage disease in mice infected by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant lacking the SigF alternate sigma factor and identification of SigF-dependent genes by microarray analysis.
Geiman DE, Kaushal D, Ko C, Tyagi S, Manabe YC, Schroeder BG, Fleischmann RD, Morrison NE, Converse PJ, Chen P, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 2004 Mar;72(3):1733-45. PMID: 14977982.

The clinical significance of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: it’s all relative.
Nuermberger E, Bishai WR. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 1;38(1):99-103. PMID: 14679455.

Deletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigma factor E results in delayed time to death with bacterial persistence in the lungs of aerosol-infected mice.
Ando M, Yoshimatsu T, Ko C, Converse PJ, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 2003 Dec;71(12):7170-2. PMID: 14638810.

Different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause various spectrums of disease in the rabbit model of tuberculosis.
Manabe YC, Dannenberg AM Jr, Tyagi SK, Hatem CL, Yoder M, Woolwine SC, Zook BC, Pitt ML, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 2003 Oct;71(10):6004-11. PMID: 14500521.

Fluoroquinolones, tuberculosis, and resistance.
Ginsburg AS, Grosset JH, Bishai WR. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Jul;3(7):432-42. Review. PMID: 12837348.

A postgenomic method for predicting essential genes at subsaturation levels of mutagenesis: application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Lamichhane G, Zignol M, Blades NJ, Geiman DE, Dougherty A, Grosset J, Broman KW, Bishai WR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jun 10;100(12):7213-8. PMID: 12775759.

Isolation of acid-inducible genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the use of recombinase-based in vivo expression technology.
Saviola B, Woolwine SC, Bishai WR Infect Immun. 2003 Mar;71(3):1379-88. PMID: 12595455.

Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in a low- to moderate-incidence state: are contact investigations enough?
Cronin WA, Golub JE, Lathan MJ, Mukasa LN, Hooper N, Razeq JH, Baruch NG, Mulcahy D, Benjamin WH, Magder LS, Strickland GT, Bishai WR. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Nov;8(11):1271-9. PMID: 12453355.

Reduced immunopathology and mortality despite tissue persistence in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant lacking alternative sigma factor, SigH.
Kaushal D, Schroeder BG, Tyagi S, Yoshimatsu T, Scott C, Ko C, Carpenter L, Mehrotra J, Manabe YC, Fleischmann RD, Bishai WR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 11;99(12):8330-5. PMID: 12060776.

Evaluation of a whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in 2 study populations.
Bellete B, Coberly J, Barnes GL, Ko C, Chaisson RE, Comstock GW, Bishai WR. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 1;34(11):1449-56. PMID: 12015690.

Beneficial impact of genome projects on tuberculosis control.
Randhawa GS, Bishai WR. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2002 Mar;16(1):145-61. Review. PMID: 11917811.

Naturally attenuated, orally administered Mycobacterium microti as a tuberculosis vaccine is better than subcutaneous Mycobacterium bovis BCG.
Manabe YC, Scott CP, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 2002 Mar;70(3):1566-70. PMID: 11854245.

Mycobacterial genetics: the sensibility of antisense.
Woolwine SC, Bishai WR. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Feb 1;165(3):318-9. PMID: 11818312.

Issues in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Wagner KR, Bishai WR. AIDS. 2001;15 Suppl 5:S203-12. Review. PMID: 11816169.

Epidemiologic usefulness of spoligotyping for secondary typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with low copy numbers of IS6110.
Cronin WA, Golub JE, Magder LS, Baruch NG, Lathan MJ, Mukasa LN, Hooper N, Razeq JH, Mulcahy D, Benjamin WH, Bishai WR. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Oct;39(10):3709-11. PMID: 11574598.

Regulation of virulence genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Mehrotra J, Bishai WR. Int J Med Microbiol. 2001 May;291(2):171-82. Review. PMID: 11437339.

Construction and characterization of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant lacking the alternate sigma factor gene, sigF.
Chen P, Ruiz RE, Li Q, Silver RF, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 2000 Oct;68(10):5575-80. PMID: 10992456.

whmD is an essential mycobacterial gene required for proper septation and cell division.
Gomez JE, Bishai WR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jul 18;97(15):8554-9. PMID: 10880571.

What we can learn from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome sequencing projects.
Manabe YC, Dannenberg AM Jr, Bishai WR. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000 Feb;4(2 Suppl 1):S18-23. Review. PMID: 10688144.

Conditional sigma factor expression, using the inducible acetamidase promoter, reveals that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigF gene modulates expression of the 16-kilodalton alpha-crystallin homologue.
Manabe YC, Chen JM, Ko CG, Chen P, Bishai WR. J Bacteriol. 1999 Dec;181(24):7629-33. PMID: 10601225.

Attenuation of virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis expressing a constitutively active iron repressor.
Manabe YC, Saviola BJ, Sun L, Murphy JR, Bishai WR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 26;96(22):12844-8. PMID: 10536010.

Analysis of rifapentine for preventive therapy in the Cornell mouse model of latent tuberculosis.
Miyazaki E, Chaisson RE, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Sep;43(9):2126-30. PMID: 10471552.

Comparison between a whole blood interferon-gamma release assay and tuberculin skin testing for the detection of tuberculosis infection among patients at risk for tuberculosis exposure.
Kimura M, Converse PJ, Astemborski J, Rothel JS, Vlahov D, Comstock GW, Graham NM, Chaisson RE, Bishai WR. J Infect Dis. 1999 May;179(5):1297-300. PMID: 10191241.

Exposure to antibiotics induces expression of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigF gene: implications for chemotherapy against mycobacterial persistors.
Michele TM, Ko C, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Feb;43(2):218-25. PMID: 9925509.

Moxifloxacin (BAY12-8039), a new 8-methoxyquinolone, is active in a mouse model of tuberculosis.
Miyazaki E, Miyazaki M, Chen JM, Chaisson RE, Bishai WR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Jan;43(1):85-9. PMID: 9869570.

Novel selection for isoniazid (INH) resistance genes supports a role for NAD+-binding proteins in mycobacterial INH resistance.
Chen P, Bishai WR. Infect Immun. 1998 Nov;66(11):5099-106. PMID: 9784509.

Mechanisms of latency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Parrish NM, Dick JD, Bishai WR. Trends Microbiol. 1998 Mar;6(3):107-12. Review. PMID: 9582936.

Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Identification by DNA fingerprinting.
Michele TM, Cronin WA, Graham NM, Dwyer DM, Pope DS, Harrington S, Chaisson RE, Bishai WR. JAMA. 1997 Oct 1;278(13):1093-5. PMID: 9315769.

Sigma factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Gomez JE, Chen JM, Bishai WR. Tuber Lung Dis. 1997;78(3-4):175-83. Review. PMID: 9713650.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigF is part of a gene cluster with similarities to the Bacillus subtilis sigF and sigB operons.
DeMaio J, Zhang Y, Ko C, Bishai WR. Tuber Lung Dis. 1997;78(1):3-12. PMID: 9666957.

A stationary-phase stress-response sigma factor from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
DeMaio J, Zhang Y, Ko C, Young DB, Bishai WR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 2;93(7):2790-4. PMID: 8610119.